Grant et al. 2006

The genus Adelphobates is closely  related members of the genus Dendrobates.  All three members, A.  castaneoticous (the Brazil nut poison dart frog), A. galactonotus (the splash-backed poison dart frog), and A. quinquevittatus (the Rio Madeira poison dart frog) were all once considered Dendrobates, along with the species tinctorius, auratus and leucomelas.  After analysis it was determined that castaneoticous, galactonotus and quinquevittatus were more closely related to each other than to any other species within the genus, and in 2006 were assigned to the new genus, Adelphobates.

Adelphobates is from the Ancient Greek adelphos (brother or twin) and bates (walker or climber).

Species of the genus Adelphobates are found throughout lowland rainforests of Brazil, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia.

Like other Dendrobatids, members of this genus receive potent toxins from their natural diet in the wild.  The various insects  consumed contain poisonous alkaloids called pumiliotoxins, which the frogs sequester, amplify and secrete from their skins.  Adelphobates species share with certain Dendrobates, e.g., D. auratus, D. leucomelas and D. tinctorius ‘Azureus’, the ability to sterospecifically hydroxylate pumiliotoxin 251D, a known cardiac depressant, to the 5x more potent allopumiliotoxin 267A[1].  This is a highly poisonous compound capable of killinging large predators.

[1] Daly et al. N-Methyldecahydroquinolines: An Unexpected Class of Alkaloids from Amazonian Poison Frogs
Dendrobatidae) J Nat Prod. 2009 June ; 72(6): 1110–1114. doi:10.1021/np900094v